CERN and the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) held a workshop in Lausanne, Switzerland and at CERN from the 21-27 March. The event, Large Hadron Collider in the LEP Tunnel, marked the first official recognition of the concept of the LHC. Attendees considered topics such as what types of particles to collide and the challenges inherent to high-energy collisions. The image above shows one proposal from the workshop – adding the LHC in with the existing LEP machine – that was later scrapped.
Building the LHC
With US President Ronald Reagan’s support, American physicists began in-depth preparations to build the largest particle collider ever. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) – a circular accelerator with an 87-kilometre circumference – was designed to smash particles together at 40 TeV centre-of-mass energy. This would make the accelerator far more powerful than CERN's planned Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Construction began in 1991 near Waxahachie, Texas. To some, the existence of the SSC project put the need to build the LHC into doubt. Director-General Carlo Rubbia had to push to keep the LHC project alive.
The excavation of the tunnel for the Large Electron-Positron Collider – Europe’s largest civil-engineering project prior to the Channel Tunnel – was completed on 8 February 1988. The two ends of the 27-kilometre ring came together with just one centimetre of error. The picture above shows a tunneling crew after completing a section of the tunnel between points 2 and 3 on the LEP ring.
The Toroidal LHC Apparatus collaboration proposed to build a multipurpose detector at the LHC. The letter of intent they submitted to the LHC Experiments Committee marked the first official use of the name ATLAS. Two collaborations called ASCOT and EAGLE combined to form ATLAS.
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration proposed to build a multipurpose detector at the LHC. The letter of intent they submitted to the LHC Experiments Committee marked the first official use of the name CMS.
A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) proposed to build a detector at the LHC to study heavy-ion collisions. The letter of intent marked the first official use of the name ALICE.
Due to concerns linked to rising costs, the US government voted to cancel the Superconducting Super Collider project. The LHC became the sole candidate for a new high-energy hadron collider.
The first prototype bending-magnet for the LHC reached a field of 8.73 Tesla, which is higher than the 8.4 Tesla field at which the LHC operated in 2012. LHC Director Lyn Evans received a hand-written note as he sat in a Finance Committee meeting. It read:
Message de J.P Goubier et R.Perin à L Evans
on a attaint 8,73 tesla
They meant "sans quench".
The CERN council approves the construction of the Large Hadron Collider. To achieve the project without enlarging CERN’s budget, they decide to build the accelerator in two stages.
The CERN Council admits Japan as an observer state. Japan announces a financial contribution to the LHC. The Japanese Minister for Education, Sciences and Culture offers a Daruma doll to CERN’s Director-General. According to Japanese tradition, an eye is painted on the doll to mark the beginning of the LHC project and the second eye must be drawn at the time of its completion. Japan makes two other major financial contributions to the LHC project in 1996 and 1998.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project was approved by the CERN council in December 1994. The LHC study group published the LHC Conceptual Design Report, which details the architecture and operation of the LHC, in October 1995.