The Total Cross Section, Elastic Scattering Diffraction Dissociation collaboration proposes to build a detector to measure the basic properties of proton-proton collisions at high energy. The Letter of Intent marks the first official use of the name TOTEM.
The Large Hadron Collider
The Monopole and Exotics Detector at the LHC proposes to build a detector to search for highly ionizing particles and slow exotic decays at the LHC. The Letter of Intent marks the first official use of the name MoEDAL. It will be the LHC’s seventh detector.
LHCb is the fourth experiment approved for the LHC. The experiment will study the phenomenon known as CP violation, which would help explain why matter dominates antimatter in the universe.
After five years of innovative and ingenious civil engineering, the ATLAS detector cavern (35 x 55 x 40 metres) is fully excavated and ready for the installation of the detector. ATLAS, CERN officials, and political authorities, including the President of the Swiss Confederation Pascal Couchepin, celebrate the inauguration of the first cavern on the LHC on 4 June 2003.
The LHC forward collaboration proposes to build two small calorimeters near the ATLAS detector for high-energy cosmic ray research.
After six and a half years of work, CERN leaders and dignitaries celebrate the completion of a second detector cavern. The CMS cavern is 53 x 27 x 24 metres. The construction was delayed by six months after workers unearthed 4th century Gallo-Roman ruins at the work site. Archaeologists found a Gallo-Roman villa with surrounding fields, coins from Ostia (a seaport of Rome), Lyon in France (then Gaul) and London.
The last superconducting magnet is lowered down an access shaft to the LHC. The 15-metre dipoles, each weighing 35 tonnes, are the most complex components of the machine. In total, 1232 dipoles were lowered to 50 metres below the surface via a special oval shaft. They were then taken through a transfer tunnel to their final destination in the LHC tunnel, carried by a specially designed vehicle travelling at 3 kilometres per hour.
A component known as a small wheel is the last large piece of the ATLAS detector to be lowered into the cavern. The ATLAS detector has the largest volume of any detector ever constructed.
The pixel detector barrel is the last large piece of the CMS detector to be lowered into the cavern.
At 10.28am on 10 September 2008 a beam of protons is successfully steered around the 27-kilometre Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the first time. The machine is ready to embark on a new era of discovery at the high-energy frontier.
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