Six years after its discovery, the Higgs boson has at last been observed decaying to fundamental particles known as bottom quarks. The finding, presented by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, is consistent with the hypothesis that the all-pervading quantum field behind the Higgs boson also gives mass to the bottom quark.
During the summer of 1962, the CERN Photo Club and Public Information Department organized a photographic competition on the theme, ‘How a visitor sees CERN’.
Fabiola Gianotti, CERN's Director General, places a time capsule at point 1 during a ground-breaking ceremony marking the launch of the civil engineering work for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project.
The “crab cavities” tests to rotate a beam of protons – a world first – is a success. The test uses a beam from CERN’s Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator and shows that bunches of protons can be tilted using superconducting transverse radiofrequency cavities. These cavities are a key component of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the future upgrade of the LHC.
Linac 4, the newest accelerator acquired since the LHC, is inaugurated at a ceremony. The linear accelerator will feed the CERN accelerator complex with particle beams of higher energy, which will allow the LHC to reach higher luminosity by 2021. It will replace Linac 2 during the long technical shut down in 2019-20.
Deputy Minister of Labour, Emigration, Social Protection and Ex-Political Persecuted F. Bektashi visited CERN.
British Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs B. Johnson MP, in the LHC tunnel at Point 1.
From CERN press release dated 17 July 2016:
On 17 July 2016, Romania became the twenty-second Member State of CERN.
Contacts between CERN and Romania began back in 1991, when a scientific and technical cooperation agreement was signed, establishing the legal framework for later developments.
Signature of the guest book by Bulgarian Deputy Prime Minister for European Policies Coordination and Institutional Affairs, Minister of Education and Science M. Kuneva with Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bulgaria to the UNOG Ambassador I. Piperkov, Director for Accelerators and Technology F. Bordry, Ambassador of the Republic of Bulgaria to Switzerland and to the Principality of Liechtenstein M. Plugtschieva, Director for Finance and Human Resources M. Steinacher, Director-General F. Gianotti and Director for Research and Computing E. Elsen.
President of the Swiss Confederation J. Schneider-Ammann and CERN Director-General F. Gianotti.
Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan M. Nawaz Sharif (centre) with Minister of Finance M. Ishaq Dar in front of the CMS detector with CERN Director- General F. Gianotti.
President of the Republic of Lithuania D. Grybauskaitė with CERN Director-General F. Gianotti in the S’Cool LAB.
CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, began producing ion beams at higher energies. The first cryomodule of the new HIE-ISOLDE (High-Intensity and Energy ISOLDE) accelerator is up and running, increasing the beam energy from 3 to 4.3 MeV per nucleon.
Vice-President of the Government of Spain S. Sáenz de Santamaría (right) and Secretary of State for Research, Development and Innovation C. Vela Olmo at the entrance to the Large Magnet Facility.
Three years after the discovery of the Higgs boson, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations present combined measurements of the many of its properties at the Large Hadron Collider Physics Conference 2015. By combining their analyses of the data collected in 2011 and 2012, ATLAS and CMS draw the sharpest picture of the newly-discovered particle.
The ALICE experiment at the LHC publishes a result in Nature Physics confirming a fundamental symmetry of nature to an unprecedented precision for light nuclei. The precise measurement of the difference between ratios of the mass and electric charge of light nuclei and antinuclei are based on the ALICE experiment’s abilities to track and identify particles produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the LHC.
The LHCb experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider reports the discovery of a class of particles known as pentaquarks.
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Possible layout of the quarks in a pentaquark particle. The five quarks might be tightly bound (left). They might also be assembled into a meson (one quark and one antiquark) and a baryon (three quarks), weakly bound together (Image: Daniel Dominguez)
From the CERN website:
Italian Prime Minister M. Renzi (centre) visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with, from left to right, High Luminosity LHC Project Leader L. Rossi, Director-General elect 2016-2020 F. Gianotti, Minister of Education, University and Research S. Giannini and INFN President F. Ferroni.
After an almost two-year shutdown and several months of re-commissioning, the LHC delivers collisions to all of its experiments at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV, almost double the collision energy of its first run. This marks the start of run 2 at the LHC, opening the way to new discoveries. The LHC will run round the clock for the next three years.
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Radioactive ion beams from many chemical elements are produced at ISOLDE and more than 1000 Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) are available for the users. With a Carbon nanotube target the element boron could be produced as a RIB for the first time and the isotope 8B (T1/2=770 ms) could be observed. With this addition to the palette of ISOLDE beams the Facility can now provide beams from 74 chemical elements to the user community.
The first beams at the energy of 13 TeV circulated in the Large Hadron Collider at XXXX this morning
From the CERN website, posted 9 December 2014:
From the CERN website, posted 17 December 2014:
Last week the cryogenics team at CERN finished filling the arc sections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with liquid helium. The helium, which is injected into magnetsthat steer particle beams around the 27-kilometre accelerator, cools the machine to below 4 degrees kelvin (-269.15°C).
The LHCb experiment announces the discovery of two new particles in the baryon family, which were predicted by the quark model but had never been seen before.
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President of the Republic of Ecuador R. Correa Delgado (center) and Vice President 2007-2013 L. Moreno, receiving a magic mug from Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci after their visit of the ATLAS experimental cavern.
Secretary of State, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Finland P. Stenlend with CERN Senior Finnish T. Hakulinen on the occasion of CERN 60th Anniversary Ceremony.
On 29 September 1954, the CERN Convention entered into force, officially establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research with 12 European member states. CERN celebrated “60 years of science for peace” with an official ceremony on 29 September and numerous public events taking place throughout the year.
Check out the website that contains a record of the activities that marked the Organization’s 60th Anniversary.
Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein S. LeVine in front of the CMS detector with Technical Coordinator A. Ball.
Content to come
Minister of State S. Sherlock, Department of Enterprise, Jobs & Innovation and Department of Education & Skills with responsibility for Research and Innovation (centre), visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Director for Accelerators and Technology F. Bordry (right).
Minister of Labour and Minister of Status of Women K. Leitch visiting the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, N. Ilic, R. Teuscher, D. Charlton and A. Elliot.
Minister of Culture Y. Lung signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.
Handshake between the Minister of Education and Science T. Sanikidze and CERN Director-General R. Heuer.
Content to come
HM Philippe, King of the Belgians, in front of the the CMS detector at LHC Point 5.
Inspired by the 1PeV events, IceCube began a follow up search with combined two powerful techniques. The first was to distinguish neutrino interactions that originated inside the detector from events which originate outside it. The second technique capitalized on the fact that downgoing atmospheric neutrinos should be accompanied by a cosmic-ray air shower depositing one or more muons inside IceCube whereas cosmic neutrinos should be unaccompanied. Consequently, a very high energy isolated downgoing neutrino is likely to be cosmic.
Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for Science, Research and Innovation, Chairman of the Research, Development and Innovation Council, P. Bělobrádek in the LHC tunnel at Point 1.
From the CERN website, posted 5 May 2014:
His Excellency Dr K. Papoulias, President of the Hellenic Republic.
President of the Federal Republic of Germany J. Gauck with CERN Director-General R. Heuer in front of the ATLAS detector at LHC Point 1.
Minister of Foreign Affairs N. Poposki (third from left) visiting the CMS cavern with Adviser for relations with FYROM T. Kurtyka, Head of International Relations R. Voss and CMS Collaboration D. Denegri.
Minister for Enterprise A. Lööf (3rd from right) visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Head of International Relations R. Voss (1st from right), scientists R. Jacobsson (2nd from right) and M. Meddahi (yellow helmet) and members of her delegation.
Prime Minister V. Orbán (3rd from left ) in front of the CMS detector with Ambassador of Hungary I. Nagy, CERN Director-General R. Heuer and CMS Collaboration Spokesperson T. Camporesi.
From CERN press release dated 15 January 2014:
At a ceremony today at CERN, the Israeli flag was hoisted for the first time to join the other 20 flags of the organization’s Member States, after UNESCO officially recorded Israel's accession as a new CERN Member State on 6 January 2014.
The LHC will be upgraded to 14 TeV collision energy. The first major upgrade is Phase I, scheduled for 2018, and Phase 2 in 2022. The experiments will continue taking data until 2035. By then ATLAS expects to have collected 100 times more data than they had at the beginning of Long Shutdown 1.
François Englert (left) and Peter Higgs at CERN on 4 July 2012, on the occasion of the announcement of the discovery of a Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)
Vice Prime Minister K. I. Gryschenko in front of the CMS detector at LHC Point 5.
Minister of Education and Research J. Aaviksoo in the LHC tunnel with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka.
Senior Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs M. Matsuyama (right) visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with K. Yoshida and International Relations Adviser R. Voss.
HM King Abdullah II of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan visiting the ATLAS experiment assembly hall with CERN Director-General L. Maiani, President of CERN Council M. Bourquin (background) and President of SESAME Council and CERN Former Director-General H. Schopper.
Minister for Scientific Affairs T. Vitharana in front of the CMS detector at LHC Point 5.
In the middle of 2013 the success of combined technical and physical efforts was demonstrated in three papers published in Nature within the space of one month.
Deputy Prime Minister O. Golodets in front of the lift to the ATLAS underground experimental cavern.
At 8.25am the shift crew in the CERN Control Centre extract the beams from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time before the machine's first Long Shutdown. The two-year shutdown will see a hive of maintenance activity on all of CERN's accelerators. Work on the LHC will include the consolidation of more than 10,000 interconnections between magnets.
The news on the CERN website posted 18 February 2013:
On Saturday at 8.25am the shift crew in the CERN Control Centre extracted the beams from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time before the machine's first Long Shutdown. The following message marked the event on LHC Page 1: "No beam for a while. Access required: Time estimate ~2 years."
(Image: The ATLAS pixel detector is reinserted into the experiment after upgrade work)
In February 2013, the LHC and its experiments, including ATLAS, began its first Long Shutdown for maintenance and first upgrades to prepare for higher luminosity operations. By the end of 2013, ATLAS had produced almost 300 publications.
(Image: Groundbreaking for the CERN-MEDICIS building. From left - R. Meuli, Chef du Département de Radiologie Médicale, CHUV, D. Hanahan, Director, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research R. Heuer, Directeur général, CERN Y. Grandjean Secrétaire général, HUG P. Piet Van Duppen, Nuclear Spectroscopy Group, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Credit: Maximillien Brice/ CERN)
Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero and Director-General R. Heuer signing a Co-operation Agreement between COLCIENCIAS and CERN.
Deputy Minister I. Suhardi for Science and Technology Empowerment, RISTEK exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci.
President of the Slovak Republic I. Gašparovič and First Lady, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2 with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations submitted papers to the journal Physics Letters B outlining the latest on their searches for the Higgs boson. The teams reported even stronger evidence for the presence of a new Higgs-like particle than they announced the month before.
Prime Minister J.-M. Ayrault and Minister for Research and Higher Education G. Fioraso of the French Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.
On 4 July 2012, as a curtain raiser to the year’s major particle physics conference, ICHEP 2012 in Melbourne, the ATLAS and CMS experiments present their latest preliminary results in the search for the long-sought Higgs particle. Both experiments have observed a new particle in the mass region around 125-126 GeV. The next step is to determine the precise nature of the particle and its significance for our understanding of the universe.
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Minister of Scientific Research N. Eskandar Zakhary in CMS control centre on Meyrin site with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson T. Camporesi.
CERN today signed a contract with the Wigner Research Centre for Physics in Budapest for an extension to the CERN data centre. Under the new agreement, the Wigner Centre will host CERN equipment that will substantially extend the capabilities of the LHC Computing Grid Tier-0 activities. This contract is initially until 31 December 2015, with the possibility of up to four one-year extensions thereafter.
(image: event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8TeV)
LHC physics data-taking gets underway at a new record collision energy of 8TeV. The LHC declares "stable beams" as two 4 TeV proton beams are brought into collision at the LHC’s four interaction points. This signals the start of physics data-taking by the LHC experiments for 2012. The collision energy of 8 TeV is a new world record, and increases the machine’s discovery potential considerably.
Minister of Foreign Affairs E. Kozakou-Marcoullis (2nd right) in the CMS experimental cavern with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis (1st right) and Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela, with Members of the Ministerial delegation.
Minister of Science and Technology P. Suraswadi visiting CMS cavern CMS Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck and Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela.
First Lady M. Zavala Gómez del Campo signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer in ALICE conference room at LHC Point 2.
Minister for Education and Science N. Crato visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with technology Department Head F. Bordry. The Minister is accompanied by Secretary of State for Science
L. Parreira (Mrs) and LIP Director J.M. Gago (back). International Relations Adviser R. Voss accompanies the delegation.
President of the Republic of Serbia B. Tadic on the occasion of the signature of the Agreement concerning the granting of the status of associate membership as the pre-stage to membership at CERN, in the ATLAS experimental cavern.
In a seminar, the ATLAS and CMS experiments present the status of their searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. Their results are based on the analysis of considerably more data than those presented at the summer conferences, enough to make significant progress in the search for the Higgs boson, but not enough to make any conclusive statement on the existence or non-existence of the elusive Higgs. The main conclusion is that the Standard Model Higgs boson, if it exists, is most likely to have a mass constrained to the range 116-130 GeV by the ATLAS experiment, and 115-127 GeV by CMS.
The grand total of data delivered by the LHC during the year reaches almost six inverse femtobarns. At the beginning of the year’s run, the objective for the LHC was to deliver a quantity of data known to physicists as one inverse femtobarn – approximately 100 trillion (102) proton-proton collisions – during the course of 2011. The first inverse femtobarn came on 17 June, setting the experiments up well for the major physics conferences of the summer and requiring the 2011 data objective to be revised upwards to five inverse femtobarns. This milestone is reached on 18 Octobe
President P. D. Patil of India signing the guest book after her visit of the ALICE experimental cavern and LHC tunnel.
Ambassador of the Republic of the Philippines to Switzerland and Liechtenstein L J. Baja receiving a magic mug from Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci.
In 2013 IceCube presented two events at around 1 PeV, the first recorded on 9 August 2011, the second on 3 January 2012. Both of these events were part of the search for ultra high energy cosmogenic neutrinos and were completely unexpected. These were the highest neutrino energies to be observed with an equivalent mass energy of over 1 million protons or about 250 times the energy of one of the protons accelerated at the LHC. The neutrinos detected may have originated from Galactic or extragalactic sources of cosmic rays.
In a paper published today in the journal Nature, the Japanese-European ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported a new measurement of the antiproton’s mass accurate to about one part in a billion. Precision measurements of the antiproton mass provide an important way to investigate nature’s apparent preference for matter over antimatter.
Minister of Science and Technology N. G. Pandor in the ATLAS Visitor Centre at LHC Point 1.
The ALPHA experiment at CERN reported today that it succeeded in trapping antimatter atoms for over 16 minutes: long enough to begin to study their properties in detail. ALPHA is part of a broad programme at CERN’s antiproton decelerator investigating the mysteries of one of nature’s most elusive substances.
Vice Minister, State Administration of Radio, Film and Television J. Tian in the ATLAS visitor centre with IMD Global Board Center Director D. Cossin and Head of CERN International Relations F. Pauss.
AMS during tests at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, in 1999 (Image: Laurent Guiraud)
President of the European Commission J. M. Barroso visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Director-General R. Heuer.
Minister of State for Science and Technology A. Mercadante Oliva in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall mockup.
National Research Foundation Permanent Secretary (National Research and Development) T. M. Kian after having signed the guest book with CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss.
Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Senator K. Carr in the ATLAS visitor Centre with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti.
On 18 December 2010, the expanded version of AMANDA, IceCube was completed. IceCube works in the same way as AMANDA but on a larger scale. AMANDA was incorporated into IceCube after operating for nine years. IceCube took seven years to complete and measures Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions in a cubic kilometer of transparent ice – the water equivalent of one million swimming pools.
Minister of National Education C. Murigande (3è) visting CERN Control Centre with Former Director for Scientific Computing H. Hoffmann (2nd) and J.-L. Denblyden (5th).
Minister of Education, Science and Technology J.-H. Lee visiting ALICE exhibition with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Schukraft and Adviser for International Relations R. Voss.
Minister for Science, Technology and Innovation H. F. B. H. Yusof visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Advisers for International Relations E. Tsesmelis and J. Ellis.
(Image: Martin Aleksa, Lyndon Evans, Fabiola Gianotti and Peter Jenni toast running at 7 TeV)
After initial lower energy collision physics from November 2009 onwards, ATLAS records collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy for the first time. Particle physicists around the world anticipate a rich harvest of new physics as the LHC begins its first long run at an energy three and a half times higher than previously achieved at a particle accelerator.
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After a short technical stop, beams circulate again on 28 February 2010. A month later, on 19 March, two 3.5 TeV proton beams successfully circulate in the Large Hadron Collider for the first time. This is the highest energy yet achieved in a particle accelerator and an important step on the way to the start of the LHC research programme.
Minister for Education, Research, Youth and Sports D. P. Funeriu and CERN Director-General R. Heuer after the signature of an agreement that formally recognises Romania as a Candidate for Accession to CERN membership.
The LHC ends its first full period of operation. Collisions at 2.36 TeV set a new world record and bring to a close a successful first run for the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. The LHC is put into standby mode for a short technical stop to prepare for higher energy collisions and the start of the main research programme. Over the 2009 run, each of the LHC’s four major experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb recorded more than one million particle collisions, which are distributed for analysis around the world on the LHC computing grid.
Particle beams circulate again in the LHC, the world's most powerful particle accelerator.
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President of the Republic of Slovenia D. Türk next to the ATLAS detector with
CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti.
(Image: The ISOLDE beamline, equipped with the first HIE-ISOLDE cryomodule in its light grey cryostat)